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Thursday, 30 June 2011

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF INDIA


The part that describes the official language of the Indian democracy have to be written to promote a feeling of unity among Indian citizens. As we know that even today anywhere between 300 to 1,000 languages are spoken in India, this makes an integral part of the Indian constitution. The official language of India shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorise the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union. 
Notwithstanding anything in this article, Parliament may by law provide for the use, after the said period of fifteen years, of the English language, or  the Devanagari form of numerals, for such purposes as may be specified in the law.

Article 345. Official language or languages of a State:-
Subject to the provisions of articles 346 and 347, the Legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more of the languages in use in the State or Hindi as the language or languages to be used for all or any of the official purposes of that State. Provided that, until the Legislature of the State otherwise provides by law, the English language shall continue to be used for those official purposes within the State for which it was being used immediately before the commencement of this Constitution
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Article 346. Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union: -
The language for the time being authorised for use in the Union for official purposes shall be the official language for communication between one State and another State and between a State and the Union. Provided that if two or more States agree that the Hindi language should be the official language for communication between such States, that language may be used for such communication
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Article 347. Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State: -
On a demand being made in that behalf the President may, if he is satisfied that a substantial proportion of the population of a State desire the use of any language spoken by them to be recognised by that State, direct that such language shall also be officially recognised throughout that State or any part thereof for such purpose as he may specify.

Special Directives: -
Article 350. 
Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances: -
Every person shall be entitled to submit a representation for the redress of any grievance to any officer or authority of the Union or a State in any of the languages used in the Union or in the State, as the case may be.

Article 350A. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage: -
It shall be the endeavour of every State and of every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups; and the President may issue such directions to any State as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.


Article 350B. Special Officer for linguistic minorities: -
There shall be a Special Officer for linguistic minorities to be appointed by the President. It shall be the duty of the Special Officer to investigate all matters relating to the safeguards provided for linguistic minorities under this Constitution and report to the President upon those matters at such intervals as the President may direct, and the President shall cause all such reports to be laid before each House of Parliament, and sent to the Governments of the States concerned.

Article 351. Directive for development of the Hindi language: -
It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.

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